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Researcher ID : F-7813-2011


Cooper, A. (2018) Thermodynamic fluctuations. In: Roberts, G., Watts, A. and European Biophysical Societies, (eds.) Encyclopedia of Biophysics. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg. ISBN 9783642359439 (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_10070-1)

Cooper, A. (2018) Van’t Hoff analysis and hidden thermodynamic variables. In: Roberts, G., Watts, A. and European Biophysical Societies, (eds.) Encyclopedia of Biophysics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg: Berlin, Heidelberg. ISBN 9783642359439 (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9)


Alan Cooper, Steven J. Vance, Brian O. Smith, Malcolm W. Kennedy. Frog foams and natural protein surfactants. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2017) 534: 120-129. Open access (

Giovanni B. Brandani, Steven J. Vance, Marieke Schor, Alan Cooper, Malcolm W. Kennedy, Brian O. Smith, Cait E. MacPhee and David L. Cheung. Adsorption of the natural protein surfactant Rsn-2 onto liquid interfaces. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2017) 19: 8584-8594 (doi: 10.1039/c6cp07261e)

G.D. Brand, D.A.T. Pires, J.R. Furtado Jr., A. Cooper, S.M. Freitas, C. Bloch Jr. Oligomerization affects the kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction of a Bowman-Birk inhibitor with proteases. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. (2017) 618: 9-14. (


Vance, S.J., Desai, V., Smith, B.O., Kennedy, M.W., and Cooper, A. Aqueous solubilization of C60 fullerene by natural protein surfactants, latherin and ranaspumin-2. Biophys. Chem. 214–215 (2016) 27–32. Open access (doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2016.05.003)


Rey-Burusco, M Florencia; Ibanez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Gabrielsen, Mads; Franchini, Gisela R; Roe, Andrew J; Griffiths, Kate; Zhan, Bin; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Corsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O. (2015) Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus. Biochem.J. 471:403-14 (doi:10.1042/BJ20150068)


Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, M., Rey-Burusco, M.F., Cooper, A., Kennedy, M. W., Córsico, B., and Smith, B. O. (2014) Resonance assignment of As-p18, a fatty acid binding protein secreted by developing larvae of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Biomolecular NMR Assignments, 8 (1). pp. 33-36. ISSN 1874-2718 (doi:10.1007/s12104-012-9447-1)

Vance, S. J., McDonald, R. E., Cooper, A., Kennedy, M. W., and Smith, B. O. (2014) Resonance assignments for latherin, a natural surfactant protein from horse sweat. Biomolecular NMR Assignments, 8 (1). pp. 213-216. ISSN 1874-2718 (doi:10.1007/s12104-013-9485-3)

Rey-Burusco, M.F., Ibañez-Shimabukuro, M., Cooper, A., Kennedy, M. W., Córsico, B., and Smith, B. O. (2014) 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift assignments of Na-FAR-1, a helix-rich fatty acid and retinol binding protein of the parasitic nematode Necator americanus. Biomolecular NMR Assignments, 8 (1). pp. 19-21. ISSN 1874-2718 (doi:10.1007/s12104-012-9444-4)

Caldwell, S.T., Maclean, C., Riehle, M., Cooper, A., Nutley, M., Rabani, G., Fitzpatrick, B., Rotello, V.M., Smith, B.O., Khaled, B., Woisel, P., and Cooke, G.(2014) Protein-mediated dethreading of a biotin-functionalised pseudorotaxane. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 12 (3). pp. 511-516. ISSN 1477-0520 (doi:10.1039/C3OB41612G)


Vance, S.J, McDonald, R.E, Cooper, A., Smith, B.O., and Kennedy, M.W. (2013) The structure of latherin, a surfactant allergen protein from horse sweat and saliva. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 10 (85). ISSN 1742-5689 (doi:10.1098/rsif.2013.0453)

Kennedy, M.W., Córsico, B., Cooper, A., and Smith, B.O. (2013) The unusual lipid-binding proteins of nematodes: NPAs, nemFABPs and FARs. In: Kennedy, M. and Harnett, m. (eds.) Parasitic Nematodes: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Immunology [2nd. ed.]. CABI; Wallingford; UK, pp. 397-412. ISBN 9781845937591

Kennedy, M.W. & Cooper, A. Surfactant Proteins and Natural Biofoams. In: Proteins in Solution and at Interfaces: Methods and Applications in Biotechnology and Materials Science, First Edition. Edited by Juan M. Ruso and Angel Pineiro (2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc)

Zhang, H., Curreli, F., Waheed, A.A., Mercredi, P.Y., Mehta, M., Bhargava, P., Scacalossi, D., Tong, X., Lee, S., Cooper, A., Summers, M.F., Freed, E.O., and Debnath, A.K.(2013) Dual-acting stapled peptides target both HIV-1 entry and assembly. Retrovirology, 10 (136). ISSN 1742-4690 (doi:10.1186/1742-4690-10-136)


Brand, Guilherme D., Magalhães, Mariana T. Q., Tinoco, Maria L. P., Aragão, Francisco J. L., Nicoli, Jacques, Kelly, Sharon, Cooper, Alan, and Bloch Jr, Carlos (2012) Probing Protein Sequences as Sources for Encrypted Antimicrobial Peptides. PLoS ONE, 7 (9). e45848. ISSN 1932-6203 (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045848)

Mads Gabrielsen, Alan Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Marina I Shimabukuro, Kate Griffiths, Andrew J Roe, Alan Cooper, Brian O Smith, Betina Corsico and Malcolm W Kennedy. Useable diffraction data from a multiple micro-domain containing crystal of Ascaris suum As-p18 fatty acid binding protein, using a
micro-focus beam-line. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications (2012) 68 939-941.

Mads Gabrielsen, M Florencia Rey-Burusco, Kate Griffiths, Andrew J Roe, Alan Cooper, Brian O Smith, Malcolm Kennedy and Betina Corsico. Two crystal forms of a helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, Na-FAR-1, from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, 68 (2012) 835-838.

Gareth A. Roberts, Augoustinos S. Stephanou, Nisha Kanwar, Angela Dawson, Laurie P. Cooper, Kai Chen, Margaret Nutley, Alan Cooper, Garry W. Blakely and David T. F. Dryden, Exploring the DNA mimicry of the Ocr protein of phage T7, Nucl. Acids Res. (2012) 40 16 8129-8143. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks516

Ana Sofia Fraga, Ana Cristina Esteves, Nuno Micaelo, Pedro F. Cruz, Rui M.M. Brito, Margaret Nutley,
Alan Cooper, Marlene M.T. Barros, Euclides M.V. Pires, Functional and conformational changes in the aspartic protease cardosin A induced by TFE. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 50 (2012) 323–330.


E. Antolikova, L. Zakova, J. P. Turkenburg, C. J. Watson, I. Hanclova, M. Sanda, A. Cooper, T. Kraus, A. M. Brzozowski and J. Jiracek, Non-equivalent Role of Inter- and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in the Insulin Dimer Interface, Journal of Biological Chemistry 286 (2011) 36968-36977.

S. Vijayakrishnan, P. Callow, M. A. Nutley, D. P. McGow, D. Gilbert, P. Kropholler, A. Cooper, O. Byron and J. G. Lindsay, Variation in the organization and subunit composition of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2/E3BP core assembly, Biochemical Journal 437 (2011) 565-574.

Book: Alan Cooper, Biophysical Chemistry – 2nd edition (RSC Tutorial Chemistry Text, ISBN 978-1-84973-081-5, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2011)
Yong Zhai, Linus Okoro, Alan Cooper, Roland Winter, Applications of pressure perturbation calorimetry in biophysical studies, 2011, Biophys. Chem. 156: 13-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpc.2010.12.010

Hongtao Zhang, Francesca Curreli, Xihui Zhang, Shibani Bhattacharya, Abdul A. Waheed, Alan Cooper, David Cowburn, Eric O Freed and Asim K Debnath, Antiviral activity of alpha-helical stapled peptides designed from the HIV-1 capsid dimerization domain, Retrovirology (2011) 8:28 doi:10.1186/1742-4690-8-28. Open access.

Alan Cooper, Microcalorimetry of heat capacity and volumetric changes in biomolecular interactions-the link to solvation?, 2011, J. Thermal Anal. Calorim. 104: 69-73

Nicola A. G. Meenan, Graeme Ball, Krystyna Bromek, Dušan Uhrín, Alan Cooper, Malcolm W. Kennedy, Brian O. Smith, Solution Structure of a Repeated Unit of the ABA-1 Nematode Polyprotein Allergen of Ascaris Reveals a Novel Fold and Two Discrete Lipid-Binding Sites, 2011, PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(4): e1040. doi:10.1371 Open access.


Alan Cooper & Malcolm W. Kennedy, Biofoams and natural protein surfactants, 2010, Biophysical Chemistry, 151: 96-104. doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2010.06.006

Alan Cooper, Protein Heat Capacity: an Anomaly that Maybe Never Was, 2010, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1: 3298-3304

Diane L. Cameron, Joanna Jakus, Sofia R Pauleta, Graham W. Pettigrew and Alan Cooper, Pressure Perturbation Calorimetry and the Thermodynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions in Water: Comparison of Protein-Protein, Protein-Ligand, and Cyclodextrin-Adamantane Complexes, 2010, J. Phys. Chem. B 114: 16228-16235


Rhona E. McDonald, Rachel I. Fleming, John G. Beeley, Douglas L. Bovell, Jian R. Lu, Xiubo Zhao, Alan Cooper, and Malcolm W. Kennedy. 2009. Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva. Plos ONE (2009) 4, e5726, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005726.Open access

Cameron D. Mackenzie, Brian O. Smith, Annette Meister, Alfred Blume, Xiubo Zhao, Jian R. Lu, Malcolm W. Kennedy, and Alan Cooper. 2009. Ranaspumin-2: structure and function of a surfactant protein from the foam nests of a tropical frog. Biophys. J. 96: 4984-4992. Open access.

Fleming, R. I., C. D. Mackenzie, A. Cooper, and M. W. Kennedy. 2009. Foam nest components of the túngara frog: a cocktail of proteins conferring physical and biological resilience. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276: 1787-1795 Open access.

Tron, C. M., I. W. McNae, M. Nutley, D. J. Clarke, A. Cooper, M. D. Walkinshaw, R. L. Baxter, and D. J. Campopiano. 2009. Structural and Functional Studies of the Biotin Protein Ligase from Aquifex aeolicus Reveal a Critical Role for a Conserved Residue in Target Specificity. J. Mol. Biol. 387:129-146.

Augoustinos Stephanou, Gareth A. Roberts, Mark R. Tock, Rachel Turkington, Emily H. Pritchard, Margaret Nutley, Alan Cooper and David T.F. Dryden. A mutational analysis of DNA mimicry by ocr, the gene 0.3 antirestriction protein of bacteriophage T7. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Comm. 378 (2009) 129–132

Augoustinos S Stephanou, Gareth A Roberts, Laurie P Cooper, David J Clarke, Andrew R Thomson, Logan MacKay, Margaret Nutley, Alan Cooper, David T F Dryden. 2009. Dissection of the DNA mimicry of the bacteriophage T7 Ocr protein using chemical modification. J.Mol.Biol. 391: 565-576.

Cardoso, T., C. Oliveira, A. C. Sarmento, A. Pereira, M. A. Nutley, T. Jess, S. M. Kelly, A. Cooper, N. C. Price, E. Pires, and M. Barros. 2009. Acetonitrile-induced unfolding of porcine pepsin A: A proposal for a critical role of hydration structures in conformational stability. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 45:213-220.

Julien Bigot, Marc Bria, Stuart T. Caldwell, Frederic Cazaux, Alan Cooper, Bernadette Charleux, Graeme Cooke, Brian Fitzpatrick, David Fournier, Joel Lyskawa, Margaret Nutley, Francois Stoffelbach and Patrice Woisel. 2009. LCST: a powerful tool to control complexation between a dialkoxynaphthalene-functionalised poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) and CBPQT4+ in water. Chem. Comm. (in press)


Muse Oke, Rosalind Tan Yan Ching, Lester G. Carter, Kenneth A. Johnson, Huanting Liu, Stephen A. McMahon, MalcolmF. White, Carlos Bloch, Jr., Catherine H. Botting, Martin A.Walsh, Aishah A. Latiff, Malcolm W.Kennedy, Alan Cooper,* and James H. Naismith* (2008). Unusual Chromophore and Cross-Links in Ranasmurfin: A Blue Protein from the Foam Nests of a Tropical Frog. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 7853-7856. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802901

Dimitra Serfiotis-Mitsa; Gareth A Roberts; Laurie P Cooper; John H White; Margaret Nutley; Alan Cooper; Garry W Blakely; David T F Dryden (2008) The ORF18 Gene Product from Conjugative Transposon Tn916 is an ArdA Antirestriction Protein that Inhibits Type I DNA Restriction-Modification Systems. J.Mol.Biol. 383, 970-981.

Stuart T. Caldwell, Graeme Cooke, Alan Cooper, Margaret Nutley, Gouher Rabani, Vincent Rotello, Brian O. Smith, Patrice Woisel (2008) Tuneable pseudorotaxane formation between a biotin-avidin bioconjugate and CBPQT4+. Chem. Comm. 2008: 2650-2652.

A. Cooper, Physical Chemistry in Biology, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Chemical Biology Ed. Tadhg P. Begley (2009) ISBN: 978-0-471-75477-0


Lamb, H. K., Thompson, P., Elliott, C., Charles, I. G., Richards, J., Lockyer, M., Watkins, N., Nichols, C., Stammers, D. K., Bagshaw, C. R., Cooper, A., Hawkins, A. R (2007) Functional analysis of the GTPases EngA and YhbZ encoded by Salmonella typhimurium. Protein Science 16, 2391-2402

K.M. Guthrie, A.D.C. Parenty, L.V. Smith, L. Cronin, A. Cooper, Microcalorimetry of interaction of dihydro-imidazo-phenanthridinium (DIP)-based compounds with duplex DNA, Biophys. Chem. (2007) 126: 117-123.

Bria, M., Cooke, G., Cooper, A., Garety, J.F., Hewage, S.G., Nutley, M., Rabani, G., Woisel, P. An investigation of the complexation properties of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in water. (2007) Tetrahedron Letters, 48 (2), pp. 301-304.

P. Pereira, S.M. Kelly, A. Cooper, H.J. Mardon, P.R. Gellert and C.F. van der Walle, Solution formulation and lyophilisation of a recombinant fibronectin fragment. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2007) 67, 309-319.

A. Cooper, Microcalorimetry and related techniques, in Handbook of Biosensors and Biochips (eds. R.S. Marks, D.C. Cullen, I. Karube, C.R. Lowe & H.H. Weetall, John Wiley & Sons, 2007)

Alan Cooper, Diane Cameron, Joanna Jakus & Graham W. Pettigrew (2007). Pressure perturbation calorimetry, heat capacity, and the role of water in protein stability and interactions. Biochem.Soc.Trans.. 35: 1547-1550


Heather K. Lamb, Christopher Mee, Weiming Xu, Lizhi Liu, Sylvie Blond, Alan Cooper, Ian G. Charles, and Alastair R. Hawkins. The affinity of a major Ca2+ binding site on GRP78 is differentially enhanced by ADP and ATP. J. Biol. Chem., (2006) 281: 8796-8805.

Michaela Smolle, Alison E. Prior, Audrey E. Brown, Alan Cooper, Olwyn Byron, and John G. Lindsay. A new level of architectural complexity in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J. Biol. Chem.(2006) 281: 19772-19780.; doi:10.1074/jbc.M601140200

Stephen A. McMahon, Martin A. Walsh, Rosalind Tan Yan Ching, Lester G. Carter, Mark Dorward, Kenneth A. Johnson, Huanting Liu, Muse Oke, Carlos Bloch Jr, Malcolm W. Kennedy, Aishah A. Latiff, Alan Cooper, Garry L. Taylor, Malcolm F. White and James H. Naismith. Crystallization of Ranasmurfin, a blue colored protein from Polypedates leucomystax. Acta Cryst. F (2006), 62: 1124-1126.


Cooper, A. Heat Capacity Effects in Protein Folding and Ligand Binding: a re-evaluation of the role of water in biomolecular thermodynamics. Biophys.Chem. (2005) 115, 89-97.

Alan Cooper, MW. Kennedy, RI. Fleming,E H. Wilson, H Videler, DL. Wokosin, Tsueu-ju Su, RJ. Green, and Jian R. Lu, Adsorption of frog foam nest proteins at the air-water interface, Biophys. J. 2005 88: 2114-2125.

Alan Cooper, Margaret Nutley, Elizabeth J. MacLean, Ken Cameron, Lee Fielding, Jordi Mestres, Ronald Palin. Mutual Induced Fit in Cyclodextrin-Rocuronium complexes. Org. Biomol. Chem., 2005 3: 1863-1871.

Meenan NAG, Cooper A, Kennedy M, Smith BO. 2005. Resonance assignment of ABA-1A, from Ascaris suum nematode polyprotein allergen. Journal of Biomolecular NMR 32(2):176-176.


Book: Alan Cooper, Biophysical Chemistry ( RSC Tutorial Chemistry Text #16, ISBN 0-85404-480-9, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2004)

A. Park, H. K. Lamb, C. Nichols, J. D. Moore, K. A. Brown, A. Cooper, I. G. Charles, D. K. Stammers, A. R. Hawkins, Biophysical and kinetic analysis of wild-type and site-directed mutants of the isolated and native dehydroquinate synthase domain of the AROM protein, Protein Sci. (2004) 13, 2108-2119.

Lamb HK, Ren JS, Park A, Johnson C, Leslie K, Cocklin S, Thompson P, Mee C, Cooper A, Stammers DK and Hawkins A. Modulation of the ligand binding properties of the transcription repressor NmrA by GATA-containing DNA and site-directed mutagenesis. Protein Science (2004)13, 3127-3138.

Pauleta, S.R., Cooper, A., Nutley, M., Errington, N., Harding, S., Guerlesquin, F., Goodhew, C.F., Moura, I., Moura, J.J.G. and Pettigrew, G.W. A copper protein and a cytochrome bind at the same site on bacterial cytochrome c peroxidase. Biochemistry (2004) 43, 14566-14576


A. Garofalo, M-C. Rowlinson, A. Ngwa, J.M. Hughes, S.M. Kelly, N.C. Price, A. Cooper, D.G. Watson, M.W. Kennedy & J.E. Bradley, The FAR protein family of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Differential lipid binding properties, structural characteristics and developmental regulation. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) 278, 8065-8074.

G. W. Pettigrew, C. F. Goodhew, A. Cooper, M. Nutley, K. Jumel, S. E. Harding, The electron transfer complexes of cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans, Biochemistry (2003) 42, 2046-2055.

D. Alexeev, P.N. Barlow, S.M. Bury, J-D. Charrier, A. Cooper, D. Hadfield, C. Jamieson, S.M. Kelly, R. Layfield, R.J. Mayer, H. McSparran, N.C. Price, R.Ramage, L. Sawyer, B.A. Starkmann, D. Uhrin, J. Wilken, and D.W. Young. Synthesis, Structural and Biological Studies of Ubiquitin Mutants Containing (2S, 4S)-5-Fluoroleucine Residues Strategically Placed in the Hydrophobic Core. ChemBioChem. 4, 894 – 896 (2003).

H. K. Lamb, K. Leslie, A. L. Dodds, M. Nutley, A. Cooper, C. Johnson, P. Thompson, D. K. Stammers, A. R. Hawkins, The negative transcriptional regulator NmrA discriminates between oxidized and reduced dinucleotides, J. Biol. Chem. (2003) 278, 32107-32114.

Hyo-Il Jung, Alan Cooper and Richard N. Perham, Interactions of the peripheral subunit-binding domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component in the assembly of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Eur. J.Biochem. 270, 4488-4496 (2003)

Graham W. Pettigrew, Sofia R. Pauleta, Celia F. Goodhew, Alan Cooper, Margaret Nutley, Kornelia Jumel, Stephen E. Harding, Cristina Costa, Ludwig Krippah, Isabel Moura, and Jose Moura, Electron Transfer Complexes of Cytochrome c Peroxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans Containing More than One Cytochrome. Biochemistry (2003), 42, 11968-11981


Cameron, D. & Cooper, A. Pressure perturbation calorimetry of solvation changes in cyclodextrin complexes. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry 44, 279-282 (2002).

Semenova, E. M., Cooper, A., Wilson, C. G. & Converse, C. A. Stabilization of all-trans-retinol by cyclodextrins: A comparative study using HPLC and fluorescence spectroscopy. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry 44, 155-158 (2002).

K.S. Cameron, J. K. Clark, A. Cooper, L. Fielding, R. Palin, S. J. Rutherford, M. Q. Zhang, Modified gamma-cyclodextrins and their rocuronium complexes, Org. Lett. (2002) 4, 3403-3406.

S.A. Smith, G. Krishnasamy, K.H.M. Murthy, A. Cooper, K. Bromek, P.N. Barlow, G.J. Kotwal, Vaccinia virus complement control protein is monomeric, and retains structural and functional integrity after exposure to adverse conditions, BBA-Proteins Proteomics (2002) 1598, 55-64.

H.I. Jung, A. Cooper, R.N. Perham, Identification of key amino acid residues in the assembly of enzymes into the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus: A kinetic and thermodynamic analysis, Biochemistry (2002) 41, 10446-10453.

L. McDermott, M.W. Kennedy, D.P. McManus, J.E. Bradley, A. Cooper, J. Storch, How Helminth Lipid-Binding Proteins Offload Their Ligands to Membranes: Differential Mechanisms of Fatty Acid Transfer by the ABA-1 Polyprotein Allergen and Ov-FAR-1 Proteins of Nematodes and Sj-FABPc of Schistosomes, Biochemistry (2002) 41, 6706-6713.

H.I. Jung, S.J. Bowden, A. Cooper, R.N. Perham, Thermodynamic analysis of the binding of component enzymes in the assembly of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Protein Sci. (2002) 11, 1091-1100.

E.R. Wright, R.A. McMillan, A. Cooper, R.P. Apkarian, V.P. Conticello, Thermoplastic elastomer hydrogels via self-assembly of an elastin-mimetic triblock polypeptide, Adv. Funct. Mater. (2002) 12, 149-154.


A.J. Pommer, S. Cal, A.H. Keeble, D. Walker, S.J. Evans, U.C. Kuhlmann, A. Cooper, B.A. Connolly, A.M. Hemmings, G.R. Moore, R. James, C. Kleanthous, Mechanism and cleavage specificity of the H-N-H endonuclease colicin E9, J. Mol. Biol. (2001) 314, 735-749.

Semenova, Ekaterina M., Cooper, Alan, Kennedy, Malcolm W., Wilson, Clive G.and Converse, Carolyn A. (2001) Systems for delivery of vitamin A to the retina in retinitis pigmentosa. New Insights Into Retinal Degenerative Diseases (ed. Anderson, RE, LaVail, MM and Hollyfield, JG), New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 105-110.

C. Clarke, R. J. Woods, J. Gluska, A. Cooper, M. A. Nutley, G. J. Boons, Involvement of water in carbohydrate-protein binding, J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) 123, 12238-12247.

A. Cooper, C.M. Johnson, J.H. Lakey, M. Nöllmann, Heat does not come in different colours: entropy-enthalpy compensation, free energy windows, quantum confinement, pressure perturbation calorimetry, solvation and the multiple causes of heat capacity effects in biomolecular interactions, Biophys.Chem. (2001) 93, 215-230.

M. W. Kennedy, A. P. Heikema, A. Cooper, P. J. Bjorkman, L. M. Sanchez, Hydrophobic ligand binding by Zn-alpha(2)-glycoprotein, a soluble fat-depleting factor related to major histocompatibility complex proteins, J. Biol. Chem. (2001) 276, 35008-35013.

M. R. Luck, S. Griffiths, K. Gregson, E. Watson, M. Nutley, A. Cooper, Follicular fluid responds endothermically to aqueous dilution, Hum. Reprod. (2001) 16, 2508-2514.

C. Hammann, A. Cooper, D. M. J. Lilley (2001). Thermodynamics of ion-induced RNA folding in the hammerhead ribozyme: An isothermal titration calorimetric study. Biochemistry 40, 1423-1429.

D. Brockwell, L. Yu, S. Cooper, S. McCleland, A. Cooper, D. Attwood, S. J. Gaskell, J. Barber (2001). Physicochemical consequences of the perdeuteriation of glutathione S-transferase from S. japonicum. Protein Sci. 10, 572-580.

U. Baxa, A. Cooper, N. Weintraub, W. Pfeil, R. Seckler, Enthalpic barriers to the hydrophobic binding of oligosaccharides to phage P22 tailspike protein, Biochemistry (2001) 40, 5144-5150.

H. F. Xie, D. N. Bolam, T. Nagy, L. Szabo, A. Cooper, P. J. Simpson, J. H. Lakey, M. P. Williamson, H. J. Gilbert, Role of hydrogen bonding in the interaction between a xylan binding module and xylan, Biochemistry (2001) 40, 5700-5707.

T. Krell, J. Maclean, D. J. Boam, A. Cooper, M. Resmini, K. Brocklehurst, S. M. Kelly, N. C. Price, A. J. Lapthorn, J. R. Coggins, Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic studies on shikimate kinase: The important structural role of the P-loop lysine, Protein Sci. (2001) 10, 1137-1149.

A. Prior, J. T. Jones, V. C. Blok, J. Beauchamp, L. McDermott, A. Cooper, M. W. Kennedy, A surface-associated retinol- and fatty acid-binding protein (Gp-FAR-1) from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida: lipid binding activities, structural analysis and expression pattern, Biochem. J. (2001) 356, 387-394.

L. McDermott, J. Moore, A. Brass, N. C. Price, S. M. Kelly, A. Cooper, M. W. Kennedy, Mutagenic and chemical modification of the ABA-1 allergen of the nematode Ascaris: Consequences for structure and lipid binding properties, Biochemistry (2001) 40, 9918-9926.


Cooper, A. (2000). Heat capacity of hydrogen-bonded networks: An alternative view of protein folding thermodynamics. Biophys.Chem. 85, 25-39.

Cooper, A. (2000). Microcalorimetry of protein-DNA interactions. In: “DNA-Protein Interactions – a practical approach” (eds. A.Travers & M.Buckle; OUP) pp.125-139.

A. Cooper, M. A. Nutley, A. Wadood, Differential scanning microcalorimetry in S. E. Harding and B. Z. Chowdhry (Eds.), Protein-Ligand Interactions: hydrodynamics and calorimetry. Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, (2000) p 287-318.

Xia, Y., Spence, H.J., Moore, J., Heaney, N., McDermott, L., Cooper, A., Watson, D.G., Mei, B., Komuniecki, R., and Kennedy, M.W. (2000). The ABA-1 allergen of Ascaris lumbricoides : Sequence polymorphism, stage and tissue-specific expression, lipid binding function, and protein biophysical properties. Parasitology 120, 211-224.

Lee T.A.T., Cooper A., Apkarian R.P., Conticello V.P. (2000). Thermo-reversible self-assembly of nanoparticles derived from elastin-mimetic polypeptides. Advanced Materials 12, 1105-1110.

Ward GD, Watson IA, Stewart-Tull DES, Wardlaw AC, Wang RK, Nutley MA, Cooper A (2000). Bactericidal action of high-power Nd : YAG laser light on Escherichia coli in saline suspension. J.Applied Microbiol. 89, 517-525.

Gokce, I., Raggett, E. M., Hong, Q., Virden, R., Cooper, A. & Lakey, J. H. (2000). The TolA-recognition Site of Colicin N. ITC, SPR and Stopped-flow Fluorescence Define a Crucial 27-residue Segment. J.Mol.Biol. 304(4), 621-632.


D.McPhail, A.Cooper & A.Freer (1999). Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a vancomycin-N-acetyl-D-ala-D-ala complex. Acta Cryst. D55, 534-535.

J.McHarg, S.M.Kelly, N.C.Price, A.Cooper, J.A.Littlechild (1999). Site-directed mutagenesis of proline 204 in the ‘hinge’ region of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase. Eur.J.Biochem. 259, 939-945.

A.Cooper (1999). Thermodynamics of protein folding and stability. “Protein: A Comprehensive Treatise”, Volume 2, pp. 217-270. (Editor: Geoffrey Allen. JAI Press Inc., Stamford CT, 1999)PDF version

L.McDermott, A.Cooper & M.W.Kennedy (1999). Novel classes of fatty acid and retinol binding proteins from nematodes. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 192, 69-75.

J.Moore, L.McDermott, N.C.Price, S.M.Kelly, A.Cooper & M.W.Kennedy (1999). Sequence-divergent units of the ABA-1 polyprotein array of the nematode Ascaris suum have similar fatty acid and retinol-binding properties but different binding-site environments. Biochem.J. 340, 337-343.

C.A.Sotriffer, W.Flader, A.Cooper, B.M.Rode, D.S.Linthicum, K.R.Liedl & J.M.Varga (1999). Ligand binding by antibody IgE Lb4: assessment of binding site preferences using microcalorimetry, docking, and free energy simulations. Biophys.J. 76, 2966-2977.

M.D.Kirkitadze, M.Krych, D.Uhrin, D.T.F.Dryden, B.O.Smith, A.Cooper, X.Wang, R.Hauhart, J.P.Atkinson & P.N.Barlow (1999). Independently melting modules and highly structured intermodular junctions within complement receptor type 1. Biochemistry 38, 7019-7031.

R.Xu, G.Greiveldinger, L.E.Marenus, A.Cooper & J.A.Ellman (1999). Combinatorial library approach for the identification of synthetic receptors targeting vancomycin resistant bacteria. J.Am.Chem.Soc. 121, 4898-4899.

P.J.Simpson, D.N.Bolam, A.Cooper, A.Ciruela, G.P.Hazelwood, H.J.Gilbert & M.P.Williamson (1999). A family IIb xylan-binding domain has a similar secondary structure to a homologous family IIa cellulose-binding domain but different ligand specificity. Structure 7, 853-864.

N.Navarre, N.Amiot, A.van Oijem, A.Imberty, A.Poveda, J.Jiménez-Barbero, A.Cooper, M.A.Nutley, G-J. Boons (1999). Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of a Conformationally Constrained Trisaccharide, and Complexation Properties with Concanavalin A . Chem.Eur.J. 5, 2281-2294.

A.J.Pommer, U.C.Kühlmann, A.Cooper, A.M.Hemmings, G.R.Moore, R.James & C.Kleanthous (1999). Homing-in on the role of transition metals in the HNH motif of colicin endonucleases. J.Biol.Chem. 274, 27153-27160.

A.Cooper (1999). Thermodynamic analysis of biomolecular interactions. Curr.Opinion Chem.Biol. 3, 557-563.

Schiffmann DA, White JHM, Cooper A, Nutley MA, Harding SE, Jumel K, Solari R, Ray KP, Gay NJ (1999) Formation and biochemical characterization of tube/pelle death domain complexes: Critical regulators of postreceptor signaling by the Drosophila Toll receptor. Biochemistry 38, 11722-11733.

Kvaratskhelia, M., George, S.J., Cooper, A. and White, M.F. (1999). Quantitation of metal ion and DNA junction binding to the Holliday junction endonuclease Cce1. Biochemistry 38, 16613-16619.


Raggett, E.M., Bainbridge, G., Evans, L.J.A., Cooper, A. & Lakey, J.H. (1998). Discovery of critical tol A-binding residues in the bacteriocidal toxin colicin N: a biophysical approach. Molecular Microbiology, 28, 1335-1343.

A.Cooper (1998). Microcalorimetry of protein-protein interactions, in “Biocalorimetry: the applications of calorimetry in the biological sciences”, eds. J.E.Ladbury & B.Z.Chowdhry (Wiley), pp. 103-111.

D.McPhail & A.Cooper (1998). Microcalorimetric studies of ligand-induced vancomycin dimerization and molecular recognition. In: Molecular Recognition and Inclusion (A.W.Coleman, ed.), pp. 415-418 (Kluwer Academic Publ.).

A.Cooper, M.A.Nutley & P.Camilleri (1998). Microcalorimetry of chiral surfactant-cyclodextrin interactions. Analyt.Chem. 70, 5024-5028.


D.McPhail & A.Cooper (1997). Thermodynamics and kinetics of dissociation of ligand-induced dimers of vancomycin antibiotics. J.Chem.Soc. Faraday Trans. 93, 2283-2289.

T.D.Spurway, C.Morland, A.Cooper, I.Sumner, G.P.Hazelwood, A.G.O’Donnell, R.W.Pickersgill & H.J.Gilbert (1997). Calcium protects a mesophilic xylanase from proteinase inactivation and thermal unfolding. J.Biol.Chem. 272, 17523-17530.

M.W.Kennedy, L.H.Garside, L.E.Goodrick, L.M.McDermott, A.Brass, N.C.Price, S.M.Kelly, A.Cooper & J.E.Bradley (1997). The Ov20 protein of the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus: a structurally novel class of small helix-rich retinol-binding protein. J.Biol.Chem. 272, 29442-29453.

A.Cooper (1997). Microcalorimetry of protein-protein interactions. Methods in Molecular Biology Vol.88: Protein Targeting Protocols, pp.11-22 (ed. Roger A. Clegg, Humana Press 1997).


L.J.A.Evans, A.Cooper & J.H.Lakey (1996). Direct measurement of the association of a protein with a family of membrane receptors. J.Mol.Biol. 255, 559-563.

M.Lovatt, A.Cooper & P.Camilleri (1996). Energetics of cyclodextrin-induced dissociation of insulin. Eur.Biophys.J. 24, 354-357.

A.Cooper, M.Lovatt & M.A.Nutley (1996). Energetics of protein-cyclodextrin interactions. J.Inclusion Phenom. and Mol.Recog. in Chemistry, 25, 85-88.

T.Krell, M.J.Horsburgh, A.Cooper, S.M.Kelly & J.R.Coggins (1996). Localization of the active site of type-II dehydroquinases. J.Biol.Chem. 271, 24492-24497.

L.J.A.Evans, S.Labeit, A.Cooper, L.H.Bond & J.H.Lakey (1996). The central domain of Colicin N possesses the receptor recognition site but not the binding affinity of the whole toxin. Biochemistry 35, 15143-15148.


K.G.Davis, S.E.Plyte, S.R.Robertson, A.Cooper & G.G.Kneale (1995). Comparison of Pf1 and Fd Gene-5 Proteins and their Single-Stranded DNA Complexes by NMR Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Biochemistry 34, 148-154.

M.W.Kennedy, J.E.Allen, A.S.Wright, A.B.McCruden & A.Cooper (1995) The gp15/400 polyprotein antigen of Brugia malayi binds fatty acids and retinoids. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 71, 41-50.

M.W.Kennedy, A.Brass, A.B.McCruden, N.C.Price, S.M.Kelly & A.Cooper (1995). ABA-1 allergen of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: fatty acid and retinoid binding function and structural characterization.. Biochemistry 34, 6700-6710.

S.J.Ford, A.Cooper, L.Hecht, G.Wilson & L.D.Barron (1995). Vibrational Raman Optical Activity of Lysozyme: Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange, Unfolding and Ligand Binding. J.Chem.Soc. Faraday Trans. 91, 2087-2093.

M.W.Kennedy, C.Britton, N.C.Price, S.M.Kelly & A.Cooper (1995). The DvA-1 polyprotein of the parasitic nematode Dictyocaulus viviparus. A small helix-rich lipid-binding protein.. J.Biol.Chem. 270, 19277-19281.

A.Cooper, D.Ma, L.McReynolds & M.W.Kennedy (1995). C elegans makes a fatty acid/retinoid-binding polyprotein: Wormy serum albumin ? Worm Breeder’s Gazette 14, 76.


C.Kleanthous, R.Deka, K.Davis, S.M.Kelly, A.Cooper, S.E.Harding, N.C.Price, A.R.Hawkins & J.R.Coggins (1992) A comparison of the enzymological and biophysical properties of two distinct classes of dehydroquinase enzymes. Biochem.J. 282, 687-695.

A.M.Equi, A.Cooper & D.J.Robins (1992) Chain-length dependence of the oxidation of a, w-diamines by diamine oxidase. J.Chem.Research (S) 1992, 94-95.

A.Cooper, S.J.Eyles, S.E.Radford & C.M.Dobson (1992). Thermodynamic consequences of the removal of a disulphide bridge from hen lysozyme. J.Mol.Biol 225, 939-943.

C.M.Johnson, A.Cooper & P.G.Stockley (1992). Differential scanning calorimetry of thermal unfolding of the methionine repressor protein (MetJ) from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 31, 9717-9724.

A.Cooper (1992). Effect of cyclodextrins on the thermal stability of globular proteins. J.Amer.Chem.Soc. 114, 9208-9209.

D.N.Woolfson, A.Cooper, M.M.Harding, D.H.Williams & P.A.Evans (1993) Protein folding in the absence of the solvent ordering contribution to the hydrophobic interaction. J.Mol.Biol. 229, 502-511.

K.E.McAuley-Hecht & A.Cooper (1993). Microcalorimetry of Enzyme-Substrate Binding: Yeast Phosphoglycerate Kinase. J.Chem.Soc. Faraday Trans. 89, 2693-2699.

A.Cooper & K.E.McAuley-Hecht (1993). Microcalorimetry and the Molecular Recognition of Peptides and Proteins. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. Lond. A 345, 23-35.

A.J.Teuten, A.Cooper, R.A.G.Smith & C.M.Dobson (1993) Binding of a substrate analogue can induce cooperative structure in the plasmin serine-protease domain. Biochem.J. 293, 567-572.

A.Cooper & C.M.Johnson (1994). Introduction to Microcalorimetry and Biomolecular Energetics, in “Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol.22: Microscopy, Optical Spectroscopy, and Macroscopic Techniques”, Ed. C.Jones, B.Mulloy and A.H.Thomas (Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1994), ch.9, pp. 109-124.

A.Cooper & C.M.Johnson (1994). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, in “Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol.22: Microscopy, Optical Spectroscopy, and Macroscopic Techniques”, Ed. C.Jones, B.Mulloy and A.H.Thomas (Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1994), ch.10, pp. 125-136.

A.Cooper & C.M.Johnson (1994). Isothermal Titration Microcalorimetry, in “Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol.22: Microscopy, Optical Spectroscopy, and Macroscopic Techniques”, Ed. C.Jones, B.Mulloy and A.H.Thomas (Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1994), ch.11, pp. 137-150.

U.K.Nowak, A.Cooper, D.Saunders, R.A.G.Smith & C.M.Dobson (1994). Unfolding Studies of the Protease Domain of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: The Existence of Partly Folded States and Stable Sub-Domains. Biochemistry 33, 2951-2960.

A.Cooper, A.McAlpine & P.G.Stockley (1994). Calorimetric studies of the energetics of protein-DNA interactions in the E.coli methionine repressor (MetJ) system. FEBS Lett. 348, 41-45.

Z.Markovic-Housley, A.Cooper, A.Lustig, K.Flukiger, B.Stolz & B.Erni (1994). Independent folding of the domains in the hydrophilic subunit IIABman of the mannose transporter of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 33, 10977-10984.


M.Barbier & A.Cooper (1965) Estimate of Induced Radioactivity in Accelerators. CERN 65-34.

A.Cooper (1969) The Precipitation of Toroidal Collagen Fibrils. Biochem.J. 112, 515-519.

A.Cooper (1970) Thermodynamic Studies of the Assembly in vitro of Native Collagen Fibrils. Biochem.J. 118, 355-365.

A.Cooper (1971) Thermal Stability of Tropocollagens – Are Hydrogen Bonds Really Important ? J.Mol.Biol. 55, 123-127.

A.Cooper & F.M.Jenkins (1973) Calorimetric Studies of Binding of Substrates and Inhibitors to Triosephosphate Isomerase. Protides of the Biological Fluids, 20, 457-461.

A.Cooper (1973) An Analysis of the Possible Source of Contractile Forces in Striated Muscle. J.Theor.Biol. 42, 545-562.

A.Cooper (1974) Thermal Difference Spectra of Aromatic Amino Acids in Water. FEBS Lett. 48, 101-104.

A.Cooper (1974) Thermochemistry of Binding of a- and b-N-Acetyl-glucosamine to Hen Egg-White Lysozyme. Effects of Specific Oxidation of Tryptophan-62. Biochemistry, 13, 2853-2856.

A.Cooper & M.E.Hogan (1976) Reactivity of Tryptophans in Rhodopsin. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Comm. 68, 178-182.

A.Cooper & C.A.Converse (1976) Energetics of Primary Processes in Visual Excitation: Photocalorimetry of Rhodopsin in Rod Outer Segment Membranes. Biochemistry, 15, 2970-2978.

A.Cooper (1976) Thermodynamic Fluctuations in Protein Molecules. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.US, 73, 2740-2741.

A.Cooper & D.D.MacNicol (1978) Chiral Host-Guest Complexes: Interaction of a-Cyclodextrin with Optically Active Benzene Derivatives. J.Chem.Soc.Perkin II, 1978, 761-763.

A.Cooper (1979) Energetics of Rhodopsin and Isorhodopsin. FEBS Lett. 100, 382-384.

A.Cooper (1979) Energy Uptake in the First Step of Visual Excitation. Nature, 282, 531-533.

A.Cooper, R.K.MacKenzie, D.D.MacNicol & D.S.Rycroft (1980) Internal Rotation in a Guest Molecule Complexed with b-Cyclodextrin in Deuterium Oxide Solution. J.Chem.Res.(S), 1980, 120-121.

A.Cooper (1980) Conformational Fluctuation and Change in Biological Macromolecules. Science Progress, Oxford, 66, 473-497.

A.E.Allan & A.Cooper (1980) Hydration of Retinal and the Nature of Metarhodopsin. FEBS Lett. 119, 238-240.

A.Cooper (1981) Rhodopsin Photoenergetics: Lumirhodopsin and the Complete Energy Profile. FEBS Lett. 123, 324-326.

A.Cooper (1981) Spurious Conformational Transitions in Proteins. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.US, 78, 3551-3553.

S.A.H.Al-Mahdawi, C.A.Converse & A.Cooper (1981) Partial Proteolysis of Cattle and Frog Rhodopsins. Biochem.Soc.Trans. 9, 319-320.

C.A.Converse, A.Cooper & M.A.Nutley (1981) A Radial-Diffusion Assay for Serum Lipase. Biochem.Soc.Trans. 9, 320-321.

A.Cooper & M.A.Nutley (1982) Soluble 2:1 Complexes of b-Cyclodextrins with Retinal Schiff Bases. J.Chem.Research(S), 1982, 218-219.

A.Cooper (1982) Tryptophan Reactivity. Methods in Enzymology, 81, 285-288.

A.Cooper (1983) Calorimetric Measurements of Light-Induced Processes. Methods in Enzymology, 88, 667-673.

A.Cooper (1983) Photoselection of Conformational Substates and the Hypsochromic Photoproduct of Rhodopsin. Chem.Phys. Lett. 99, 305-309.

A.Cooper (1984) Protein Fluctuations and the Thermodynamic Uncertainty Principle. Prog.Biophys.Molec.Biol. 44, 181-214.

A.Cooper & D.T.F.Dryden (1984) Allostery Without Conformation Change. Eur.Biophys.J. 11, 103-109.

A.Cooper, S.F.Dixon & M.Tsuda (1986) Photoenergetics of Octopus Rhodopsin: Convergent Evolution of Biological Photon Counters ? Eur.Biophys.J. 13, 195-201.

S.F.Dixon & A.Cooper (1987) Quantum Efficiencies of the Reversible Photoreaction of Octopus Rhodopsin. Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 115-119.

A.Cooper, S.F.Dixon, M.A.Nutley & J.L.Robb (1987) Energetics and Mechanism of Rhodopsin Photolysis in Retinal Proteins. In: Retinal Proteins (VNU Science Press), pp.85-89.

A.Cooper, S.F.Dixon, M.A.Nutley & J.L.Robb (1987) Mechanism of Schiff Base Formation and Hydrolysis in Relation to Visual Pigment Photolysis and Regeneration: Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of a Tetrahedral Carbinolamine Intermediate and Oxygen-18 Labelling of Retinal at the Metarhodopsin Stage in Photoreceptor Membranes. J.Amer.Chem.Soc. 109, 7254-7263.

A.Cooper (1988) Conformational Change, Fluctuation and Drift in Biological Macromolecules: An Empirical Langevin Approach. J.Mol.Liqu. 39, 195-206.

A.Cooper & J.L.Houben (1989) Enzyme Catalysis: The View from Physical Chemistry. In: A.Cooper,J.L.Houben and L.Chien(Eds.), The Enzyme Catalysis Process: Energetics, Mechanism and Dynamics,(Plenum, NATO-ASI Series, New York,1989).

A.Cooper & D.T.F.Dryden (1989) Thermodynamic Fluctuations and Function in Proteins. In: A.Cooper,J.L.Houben and L.Chien (Eds.), The Enzyme Catalysis Process: Energetics, Mechanism and Dynamics, (Plenum, NATO-ASI Series, New York, 1989).

A.Cooper (1989) Microcalorimetry of Protein-Ligand Interactions. In: A.Cooper, J.L.Houben and L.Chien(Eds.), The Enzyme Catalysis Process: Energetics, Mechanism and Dynamics, (Plenum, NATO-ASI Series, New York, 1989).

A.Cooper, B.Sanders & D.T.F.Dryden (1989) Dynamics of Genetically-Engineered Enzymes: Fluorescence and Depolarized Rayleigh Scattering Studies of Yeast Phosphoglycerate Kinase. J.Mol.Liqu. 42, 99-111.

A.Cooper, A.M.Equi, S.K.Ner, A.B.Watson & D.J.Robins (1989) Oxidation of N-Alkylputrescines by Diamine Oxidases. Tetrahedron Letters 30, 5167-5170.

A.M.Equi, A.M.Brown, A.Cooper, S.K.Ner, A.B.Watson & D.J.Robins (1991) Oxidation of Putrescine and Cadaverine Derivatives by Diamine Oxidases. Tetrahedron 47, 507-518.

C.Kleanthous, M.Reilly, A.Cooper, S.Kelly, N.C.Price & J.R.Coggins (1991). Stabilization of the Shikimate Pathway Enzyme Dehydroquinase by Covalently Bound Ligand. J.Biol.Chem. 266, 10893-10898.

C.M.Johnson, A.Cooper & A.J.P.Brown (1991) A comparison of the reactivity and stability of wild type and His388–>Gln mutant phosphoglycerate kinase from yeast. Eur.J.Biochem. 202, 1157-1164.